Could This Be the Answer to the Mystery of Atlantis?
The stories of the lost city of Atlantis have amazed humankind for many years. Interestingly, this was a fictional island created by Greek philosopher Plato in his tales, explaining that it was their naval opponent. However, his written work described human condition in such detail that soon many believed that it actually existed. Have our modern archaeologists found evidence of this island? We could be about to discover the truth!
There have been many tales of this mysterious islands throughout history, and even modern times have depicted in films as well as television. What was originally thought of as fiction has actually helped people uncover some of the most amazing things in the world. All of these findings could eventually lead to the truth of Atlantis.
It’s a modern city in ‘Aquaman’ and a beautiful mystery in other stories. However, its origins can be traced back to Ancient Greece in a story by Plato from 360 B.C. The tale itself talks about losing gods and how that lead to the sinking of the island into the Atlantic Ocean. Could there be some truth to these fantastic anecdotes?
A MODERN SOCIETY
In his work, the philosopher described Atlantis as a set of concentric islands. It was initially a Utopian society where the original settlers were half-god and half-human. The city has all kinds of intellectuals, architects, and engineers. Additionally, it was rich in precious metals like gold, silver, and others. Everyone had a luxurious lifestyle. One passage said, “Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island.”
Around a century after Plato wrote his story, Atlantis was considered a myth, and any talk about it was considered speculation. However, it led to incredible findings for many people like cartographer Abraham Ortelius. He was the first person to consider the idea that all continents were connected at some point. “Unless it be a fable, the island of Gadir or Gades [Cadiz] will be the remaining part of the island of Atlantis or America, which was not sunk (as Plato reports in the Timaeus),” he theorized.
As time passed, the idea of Atlantis was later buried, and people forgot all about it. It wasn’t until Ignatius Donnelly that the story resurfaced. He was avidly interested in the tale and even wrote a book with his research. In his book, ‘Atlantis, the Antediluvian World’, Donnelly thinks that Plato was documenting a natural disaster.
THE PILLARS OF HERCULES
Although extensive, Donnelly’s research was also considered speculative, but his theory worked on the premise that the Atlantic Ocean was not that profound. He claimed that it was only a couple of hundred feet deep. Donnelly said that colliding oceans had buried Atlantis, which is set to be located by the “Pillars of Hercules”, two rocks right at the entry of Straits of Gibraltar. Is his theory still believable?
IS IT A RELIABLE THEORY?
In his theory, Donnelly describes the same location as Plato’s description of Atlantis, and it’s still one of the most popular among experts these days. However, modern oceanographers have actually debunked it several times after discovering a lot more information about plate tectonics. On the other hand, other theorists decided to expand on Donnelly’s work.
THE SECRET CLUB
Helen Blavatsky is the founder of the Theosophical Society, and she was a Russian mystic that truly believed in Donnelly’s theories. Plato said that Atlanteans were all about military power, but Blavatsky thought that their society was rich in culture and that their civilization was refined. She also thought that white people were connected to Atlanteans, which she called the “Root Race”. But, the internal battles of Atlanteans resulted in their downfall because they also had supernatural abilities.
Unfortunately, Blavatsky’s theories took a wrong turn. She wrote the book ‘The Secret Doctrine’, which was a huge inspiration for white supremacy in Germany. Due to her mentions of Hyperborea, a place with a godlike race, Blavatsky unknowingly helped create Nazism. Luckily, more impartial theorists came along that drifted away from this idea.
A NEW ERA
The next generation of researchers added their ideas and theories regarding where the city of Atlantis could have been found. Charles Berlitz was one of the most recognized theorists and also the author of many novels about paranormal activity, which eventually led him to talk about the mysterious island. Sadly, his ideas could never be backed up.
THE BERMUDA THEORY
Everyone has heard of the Bermuda Triangle, an area where ships and planes have mysteriously gone missing for many years. Berlitz actually thought that Atlantis was located in this part of the ocean. His theories were actually believable at first because of the structures and walls close to the Bimini coast. However, scientists found that these rock formations were completely natural.
COULD IT BE IN ANTARCTICA?
Charles Hapgood was an American professor, and he came with another notion, which ended up being just as popular as Berlitz’s. In his 1958 novel, ‘Earth’s Shifting Crust’, he wrote that many natural disasters were caused by a pole shift. He also suggested that Atlantis might have been a temperate kind of Antarctica. Why would he come to such a conclusion?
Hapgood stated that a mass land, which would be Antarctica, moved around due to a movement in the Earth’s crust more than 12,000 years ago. He said that this area was the home of an advanced civilization: the Atlanteans. But, the professor also said that these people had to move when ice covered the land. Scientists once again debunked this theory.
WEIRDER THAN FICTION
While there are many theories that tried to prove the existence of Atlantis, there were also those that wanted it disproved completely. One theory stated that the Bosporus Strait flooding in the Black Sea, which is also referred to as The Black Sea Flood, led to the myth of Atlantis. In fact, the disaster actually ended the lives of many people in the area.
WHAT DO HISTORY BOOKS SAY?
It might be complicated to discover the truth behind myths, but the first thing to do is look back to the history of Ancient Greece. Historians actually discovered that that whole myth of this city is centered on a group of people that lived between 2500 and 1600 B.C. They were called the Minoans and were also the first to build complicated structures in Europe. Experts could not ignore their connection to Atlantis. However, something happened.
Weirdly enough, the Minoans seemed to drop off the edge of the world. Therefore, theorists drew even more connections between them and Plato’s unbelievable story. Some notions looked towards the island of Thera, which is currently known as Santorini. A tremor struck their land more than 3,500 years ago. Some experts think that the tremor led to huge waves that destroyed everything. Could it be true?
A NEW HYPOTHESIS
Greek archeologist Angelos Galanopoulos came up with this idea in the late 1960s, but not many people believed him. They said that Angelos’ dates did not coincide with the dates of Plato’s story, but the archeologist explained his research. Originally, the story was wrongly translated by an Egyptian interpreter, who said that it happened more than 900 years ago. In reality, it was around 900 years back. Therefore, Galanopoulos’ theory was still disproven because Plato said that Atlantis was as old as Gibraltar.
MORE ON THE THERA THEORY
Bettany Hughes is another historian that took an interest in the island of Thera, and she said that there were too many similarities between Plato’s work and the disaster in the ancient Santorini. She wrote, "Plato describes the Atlantean buildings as being red, black and white – as indeed the masonry at Akrotiri strikingly was (and still is).” Additionally, the archive "also talks about the city encircled by rings of land – the formation of the collapsed volcano."
IT’S ALL ABOUT LOCATION
One of the main findings that have led to many discussions regarding the location of Atlantis was discovered by a photograph interpreter. J.M. Allen actually said that Atlantis could be in South America. It’s apparently in Altiplano, near the Bolivian Andes. However, mystic Edgar Cayce thought that the city was near the Bimini coast. Other areas could be Southern Spain, the Azores, and Morocco.
Cayce actually said that he had the ability to cure people, and he could allegedly communicate with the people in Atlantis. He wrote down his experiences in the city, which he had thanks to his powerful abilities. Additionally, he said that Atlantis would rise in the 60s, and that information about the city could be found under the Sphinx in Egypt.
NOT THE POINT
At one point, the idea of continental drift became a fact, but researchers were still trying to determine if Atlantis existed or not. However, scholar Julia Annas explained, "The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the seabed." Her comments actually changed the research methods of many theorists.
The story of Atlantis still captivates modern society, especially the fact that an underwater city could exist, and that mediums communicate with them. Many movies have made regarding the city like Disney’s ‘Atlantis: The Lost Empire’ and the Luc Besson documentary ‘Atlantis’. It has also featured in comic books from Marvel and DC.
WAS IT ORIGINAL?
Interestingly, there was a huge debate regarding Plato’s originality. Some think that he actually came up with the story inspired by Gyges’ allegories and other notions. Others believe that he used several inspirations like the invasion of the Sea Peoples and the Trojan War. The destruction of Helike in 400s B.C. could also have encouraged him. But, many still think that his work was completely new.
New experts came up with theories that were pretty scary for the public. Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg and August Le Plongeon thought that the Mayans or the Aztecs actually created Atlantis. Brasseur de Bourbourg traveled through their lands in the 1800s and thought that the Mayan texts like ‘Popol Vuh’ have compelling evidence of his theory.
Unfortunately, his theories were not well-received by the masses, and Brasseur De Bourbourg’s reputation took a significant hit. He stated that the Mayans descended from the Toltecs, who were an even superior race than the Atlanteans. Although he was able to entertain many people, experts disregarded his views, stating that they were pure fantasy. Another person’s theory could be more believable.
THE AFRICAN ATLANTIS
In our modern times, there have not been many new theories regarding Atlantis. However, in 2015, Michael Hubner, a German computer scientist, thought that Morocco actually had the ancient ruins of this civilization. He investigated Plato’s work, researching the regions surrounding Athens within a 3,000-mile area, and came up with the African country. Was it a coincidence?
THE ATLANTIS ALGORITHM
Unlike any other theorist before Hubner, the expert used computer technology to back up his idea. Others would actually choose an area and try to find evidence to support it afterward. Hubner used 51 attributes of Plato’s descriptions of Atlantis such as the closeness to the sea, near the Pillars of Hercules, and the elephants. All 51 boxes led to Morocco. Two years later, archeologists discovered the most important finding in history.
THE HUGE DISCOVERY
An ancient city was recently discovered by experts, and it’s believed to be the real Atlantis. However, one detail was completely unforeseen. It was in the Pacific Ocean, and aerial photographs have shown Nad Madol on the island of Pohnpei. Archaeologists at the site discovered that the city was built over a lagoon. However, why is it linked to Atlantis?
IS IT ATLANTIS?
One of the weirdest things about this ancient city is the tidal canals, as well as the walls, which were pretty similar to Plato’s descriptions. Nan Madol’s buildings were constructed with 750,000 tons of black rock. Additionally, the name “Nan Madol” translates to “spaces between”, which describes the canals around the ruins.
The research leader is Mark McCoy, an archeologist, who said that this discovery was the real game-changer in the search of Atlantis, whether it is or not. He said, “It now looks like Nan Madol represents a first in Pacific Island history. It was the seat of political power, the center of the most important religious rituals, and the place where the former chiefs of the island were laid to rest.”
JUST LIKE A MOVIE
McCoy and his group examined a grave in the area, where a chief of a tribe had been put to rest. This is how they were able to estimate the date of the town’s construction. He explained, "With the results described in our new paper, [it] can now be compared to other islands in the Pacific and societies around the world." So, who lived in this city?
THE NEW ATLANTIS
It seems that new technology is really right. McCoy was right because Nan Madol was the home of the Saudeleur Dynasty. These people lived in the area until 1628, and they built the structures examined by the experts as well as many others in the islands close to Pohnpei. These ruins were actually considered advanced for their time.
HAVE OTHERS FOUND IT?
It does not seem like Nan Madol is Atlantis, but there is still no confirmation. Either way, it’s still an amazing discover for history and archaeologists. They might even find something special later on. In fact, the discovery of this land has increased the world’s efforts into finding the mysterious city of Atlantis. Maybe, it has already been found.
MORE IMPRESSIVE DISCOVERIES
While we have yet to discover Atlantis, humanity has uncovered some incredible things in the past, and they are still marvelous. The Pyramids of Giza are considered one of the great architectural wonders in the world, and experts still marvel at the phenomenon. How were they built if they had no modern tools? A team of researchers may have found the answer.
There have been many legends regarding ancient Egypt in history, and many people have dedicated their lives to uncovering these marvels, especially the elusive pyramids. The main concern was how it built. Did the Egyptians lifted, rolled, or pushed the rocks that create the structure? One team had pretty awesome theories.
THE ORIGINAL MAKERS
Greek theorists believed that the Egyptians used slaves to create the pyramids, and for many years, this was the most accepted idea. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus described exactly how they made the structures, and Herodotus actually wrote a book about it in the 5th century B.C. His work actually notes his advanced ideas.
CAN WE TRUST THAT INFORMATION?
Herodotus’ work of this construction is considered the best approximation of the issue, even though his research came 1,600 years after the erection of the pyramids. Egyptians have been collected a lot of information, but the Greek expert’s book is still the best. However, at some point, some critics wanted to contest Herodotus, claiming that he only wrote one side of the whole picture.
THE BEST BELIEFS
For many years, Egyptologists and historians alike were in agreement regarding the construction of the pyramids. They believed that the Pharaohs commissioned the structures, and the plans for it were designed by the best architects, as well as engineers, of the time. Of course, slaves did the hard labor. A new theory might explain more of their building methods.
Researching this issue is not that easy, and many people have conflicting opinions regarding the erection of the pyramids. However, there are many similar notions regarding the techniques these ancient folks used. They also agreed that workers had a copper chisel to carve the rocks. Then, the boulder was pushed and finally lifted when the leader thought it was finished. However, some believed that other beings could be responsible for the pyramids.
DID ALIENS ASSEMBLED THE PYRAMIDS?
It might be considered a conspiracy theory, but there are many who believed that beings from another planet actually constructed the Pyramids of Giza. This idea developed from the fact that the structures align perfectly with Orion’s Belt. Also, these structures are still in top shape compared to others that were built around ancient times. Is there another answer?
THE JEWISH SLAVES
Looking back to the history of the pyramid, we also have to consider Biblical stories, especially the book of Exodus where they describe when the Israelites were slaves of the Egyptian rulers. Some people might believe then that the Hebrews built the pyramid, but expert historians can clear up that misunderstanding. The Pyramids of Giza were built in 2580 B.C., but the Israelites were not slaves until the 13th century B.C.
Most of the evidence surrounding these impressive structures suggests that the Egyptians built them, but there is a chance that they could have been there before the Pharaohs. Historians Gerry Cannon and Malcolm Hutton are sure that the Sphinx was cut from natural rock. "You can’t carve a rock when it’s under sand" said Cannon. “When it was not under sand was about 12,000 years ago and the Egyptians weren’t there.”
THE EGYPTIANS BUILT IT?
If their theories are true, then the buildings are way older than estimated by archeologists, and it also means that there was an older civilization responsible for them. Cannon added, “Nobody knows who was there 12,000 years ago. It had to have been done by a civilization that was more advanced than any of us.” Egyptians officials have disputed this theory completely, but there were even more notions around.
THE MAIN PYRAMID
Miroslav Verner is considered one of the best Egyptologists of his time, and he stated that a hierarchy was set in place to build the pyramids. He claimed that more than 100,000 men were separated into teams for different parts of the structure. Therefore, those who constructed them were also organized in a pyramid-like way. There is still more to this complicated idea.
John Romer is another Egyptologist that talked about the detailed manner in which they set about making the pyramids. He claimed that workers probably drew a life-size plan of the buildings. “Such a working diagram would also be used to create the pyramid's architecture with unrivaled precision by any other means,” he said. Romer also calculated that it took 14 years to finish. But someone else investigated further.
Mark Lehner is considered the most significant person to ever search for these answers. Along with his team, the Egyptologist did the most thorough research to discover some details that others overlooked. The team came up with some amazing theories. Lehner thinks that 14,500 to 40,000 were part of the construction. His role in this investigation would become even more important later on.
The modern, major breakthrough in this research project came in 1954 thanks to archeologist Kamal el-Mallakh, whose team found a boat that was allegedly used by Pharaoh Khufu. The ship has been restored and studied carefully, particularly the wooden planks. Interestingly, the planks were sewn together. What was the use of this boat, then?
GOING TO HEAVEN
In 2500 B.C., the servants of the Pharaoh placed this ship at the Great Pyramid complex. That way, Khufu would have everything he needed to do well in the afterlife. The vessel was allegedly known as “solar barge”, which was supposed to take the king to Ra, the Sun God, to live in the next world. It has not been confirmed, though, and other researchers think that it had another purpose.
PURPOSE ON EARTH
Apparently, the boat was already underwater, which has led theorists to believe that it was supposed to take the mummified body of the Pharaoh to his grave. Otherwise, Khufu used his boat as a transportation method when he was still alive. Either way, it’s considered the most important discovery in Egyptology.
THE REASON FOR THE PYRAMIDS
Aside from wondering how people managed to build these structures, we have to also question why. Egyptologists think that the whole thing was for Pharaoh Khufu, who used the structure is a tomb for twenty years. The smaller ones around it were apparently for Khufu’s three wives. However, recent research might have uncovered another explanation.
THE PYRAMID OF PANDORA
One of the most interesting findings of the Great Pyramid is actually an empty space. Researchers discovered a void part of the pyramid that sits above the Queen’s room. It measures roughly 30 meters and looks like a corridor or a passage. The purpose of such an empty part has not been determined, but there are many theories.
THE COMPLICATED CONSTRUCTION
While people marvel at the grandeur of the outside, most people might not know that the interior is pretty remarkable as well. As of this writing, there are three important chambers: the lowest one in the bedrock, the room of the Queen, and the room of the King. Additionally, Giza has two mortuary temples to honor the Pharaoh, and there is also a “satellite” pyramid as well as several tombs surrounding it.
THE NILE RIVER
Most civilizations settle near a body of water. We need it to survive. Therefore, it’s completely unsurprising that the Pyramids of Giza were raised near the River Nile. However, some think that there was a spiritual reason for this choice as well. The pyramids are located in the west bank of the Nile, where the sun goes down, which is said to represent the realm of the dead.
COLD ON THE INSIDE
Any researcher would tell you that the Egyptians were ahead of their time. One of the main pieces of evidence of this is that the pyramids were built with a ball and socket mechanism, which prevents damage from earthquakes. Additionally, they are built so well, that although the weather in Egypt can be scorching, the insides are always a cozy 20 degrees Celsius.
SOMETHING WAS THERE FIRST
Inside the main room of the Great Pyramid, researchers found a granite coffer, which is more remarkable than anyone can imagine. The coffer was carved from a piece of granite with an incredibly intricate design. However, the main detail is that it would have been impossible to put it there after the pyramid was built. Therefore, they had to work around it.
Another incredible part of the Great Pyramid is the apparent “glue” that was used to place the blocks together. No scientist has been to recreate it, and archeologists cannot determine the origins of the material. The only thing they know is that it’s a chemical compound, and they believe it’s even stronger than stone.
THE ROYAL CHAMBERS
There two theories that certainly contradict each other regarding the empty space inside the pyramid. The first one states that the “gap” was meant for construction purposes. So, builders would have a way to move from one place to another inside the structure. The second theory thinks that the void was a way for the King to get into the Queen’s chambers. However, this could also mean something else.
Big buildings are often the symbol of power in history, and of course, the Great Pyramid is considered one of the best. It has a 13 acre-wide base and is 479 feet high. It also features 2.3 million calcareous blocks and is one of the most impressive structures in human history. Archeologist Kate Spence said, “These sorts of pyramids are the major product, so to speak, of the kings who built them."
ATTRACTING THE WORLD
Some people might be attracted to Giza because they are experts in the field and have to visit it at least once in their life. However, most regular people would love to see it just for the wonder that it is. The Pyramids of Giza are definitely the most attracting factor in Egypt, and that’s why they have more than 5 million tourists each year.
A WONDER OF THE WORLD
The Great Pyramid of Giza is considered the last of the Seven Wonders still standing, but what happened to the rest? Historians say that the six wonders are Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Temple of Artemis, the Olympic Statue of Zeus, and the Alexandrian Lighthouse.
DID IT COME FROM SPACE?
A professor from Milan Polytechnic thinks that there is a throne inside a secret room in the Great Pyramid. This chair was apparently carved from meteorites. The dagger of King Tut was discovered in 1922, and that’s how historians found out that Ancient Egyptians used meteoric iron. "In these texts, it is said that the pharaoh, before reaching the stars of the north, will have to pass the ‘gates of the sky’ and sit on his ‘throne of iron’," said Giulio Magli.
THE PYRAMIDS THROUGHOUT CULTURE
The pyramids have been a source of great wonder all over the world, and they have inspired artists to use them in their creations. Many movies have used these structures in their background, and some, have actually been inspired by them such as ‘The Mummy’, ‘Raiders of the Lost Ark’, and ‘Stargate’. Additionally, the animated film ‘The Prince of Egypt’ told the story of the Israelites described in the Bible.
ONLY FOR GUESTS
One of the latest discoveries about Ancient Egyptian culture is that they only went inside the pyramids if they had guests. Experts from the University College of London found this evidence, and Professor Sidney Colliver said, “Recently unearthed papyrus rolls dating from 2400 B.C. confirm that most Egyptians of the time went to the pyramids of Giza once as a kid and thought they were pretty cool, but seldom returned to the majestic tombs unless they had a buddy visiting who had never been there before.
THE STOLEN THINGS
Unfortunately, one of the things that stopped researchers from discovering even more details about Egypt is the Pyramids have been robbed several times throughout history. Allegedly, they were all looted by the New Kingdom as authors Briar and Hobbs explained. It has also been said that a stone was taken once, and it was originally a slope to the base of the Great Pyramid. Sadly, by the end of the Old Kingdom, it had been plundered many times.
THE MAN WHO COULD
Mark Lehner has to be mentioned once again as he made so many discoveries surrounding the pyramids. His team found “The Lost City”, as it is known in the archeological world. He also found the remains of a port, which means that the region was not isolated from the rest. Furthermore, Lehner thinks that those that worked on the pyramid lived on the ramps used for construction at the site.
THE GREAT DISCOVERY
In 2013, Wadi al-Jarf discovered an ancient piece of papyrus in a cave, and they also found out something amazing. It’s the oldest of its kind that has even been encountered and more than 4,500 years old. The text described the details of the construction that most people could only guest at before. Now, there was actually proof of how they did it. But, who got it?
A PURE HISTORIAN
Pierre Tallet found the papyrus and deciphered the hieroglyphics himself. However, it took around five years to truly uncover what was said in the text. "Since the very day of the discovery, it was quite evident that we have the oldest papyrus ever found in the world," he explained. With this incredible discovery, Tallet could change the world.
THE DIARY OF MERER
It became known as the Diary of Merer, an ancient Egyptian, who took the time to write down a detail explanation on how the Egyptians carried out such a massive undertaking. There many engineers working on the team, and Mere said that they used boats to transport 170,000 tons of limestone from Tura to Giza through the Nile. This papyrus is considered the first written account of the events. However, there was an even more impressive detail.
Merer also talked about their complicated channel system. The engineers of the pyramids created several canals around the area to move their materials easily. These ducts connected the Nile and the construction site directly. What about the materials then? Mere also talked about this mystery and revealed important people who worked on the project.
THE PHARAOH AND THE VIZIER
This diary revealed a lot of fascination information regarding the pyramid but also about Pharaoh Khufu’s rule (2600 B.C.). His half-brother, known as the “noble Ankh-haf”, was the royal Vizier and the supervisor of the Great Pyramid’s construction. Additionally, the text said that Khufu instructed his subjects to decorate with Tura limestone. Someone else helped uncover more of what Tallet had translated in the papyrus.
THE LATEST NEWS
The effort was completed by Mark Lehner. Along with his team, Lehner discovered the hidden waterway in Giza, which is more proof of the things in Merer’s diary. The expert said, "We’ve outlined the central canal basin which we think was the primary delivery area to the foot of the Giza Plateau.” Therefore, now there are 3 key sources to the origins of the Pyramids: the Diary of Merer, the Khufu ship, and the lost waterway.
THE UNERRING TRUTH
Tallet, Lehner, and several others were able to confirm a list of things that were only speculated about for hundreds of years. Furthermore, the Diary of Merer actually proves that boats and canals were used to create the Giza Pyramids. Additionally, the most important materials of the construction, granite and calcareous, were imported from Aswan and Tura. What could this mean?
THE FUTURE OF MORE RESEARCH
These might three different discoveries but are so linked that they add more depth to the ideas of Egyptologists like Herodotus, Gerry Cannon, and Miroslav Verner. Although the findings have been astounding, the search continues. However, some of the secrets of this ancient – and advanced – civilization have finally been revealed. Archeologists will probably double their efforts to uncover even more mysteries.
Humanity will never stop looking for answers to our most basic question: where do we come from? Hopefully, during the search, we will continue to uncover incredible details. Let us know what you think about the search for Atlantis. If you liked this article, share it with your friends who love archeology. See you next time!
Source: Domesticated Companion